Panel Members

Lay panel members assess and make recommendations for the appointment of judicial office holders, many of which are life-long tenures. This is a socially significant role, contributing to the continued excellence and integrity of the judiciary of England and Wales. 


At the Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC), we interview candidates as part of our selection exercises, and panel members represent us in this process. Panel members have a key role in ensuring that we conduct our business efficiently, fairly and with a focus on our statutory duty to select on merit. Final decisions about who to recommend for appointment are made by our Commission Board, with panel assessments informing each decision.


All selection panels comprise a judicial member, and at least one lay panel member. As a rule, panels are chaired by lay members. Each panel will assess all the evidence of a candidate’s merits against a competency framework (or Skills and Abilities criteria) for the post. Panel members review applications, interview candidates at a selection day, and provide the assessments that help Commissioners decide who to recommend for judicial appointment.

Panel member diversity

JAC panel members perform a critical role in the recruitment of the judiciary. It is essential that our panels are representative of wider society. The JAC is committed to the recruitment, retention and ongoing support of diverse panel members of all backgrounds, in line with the latest published population data. This is to ensure diversity is at the forefront of selection panel member composition, both for lay panel members and judicial members.     

Panel member recruitment

We regularly seek new lay panel members to support our current cadre.

If you are interested in becoming a panel member, our Information Pack can be found here. Fersiwn Cymraeg. The Information Pack explains the role, the eligibility conditions and how to apply.

You can also find the competency framework for the role here: Panel Member Competency Framework.

If you require further information, please email 

We particularly welcome applications from ethnic minority candidates and Welsh speakers as these groups are currently under-represented within our lay panel member cadre. 

Meet some of our panel members

Jessica Baldwin

What made you decide to become a panel member for the JAC?
For nine years, I interviewed potential magistrates. Like the JAC, we sat as a panel of three and I enjoyed working collectively, putting our heads together and agreeing on a final report.
What would you say to someone who is considering becoming a panel member themselves?
It’s interesting work, requiring good listening and writing skills and an ability to adjust your position when you’ve heard another person’s point of view. The other panellists are always interesting, coming from a variety of backgrounds.
What is your main area of work outside being a panel member?
I’ve been a hard news journalist for 40 years but now do mainly arts and culture stories for Al Jazeera English, the television news channel. 
What was your first ever job?
Working in a sandwich bar in Seattle when I was 16.
What can you tell us about yourself that your colleagues would not necessarily know?
I love being in the wilderness and have skied the Haute Route, going from hut to hut across the Alps from Chamonix to Zermatt.

Judith Berrill

What made you decide to become a panel member for the JAC?
After leaving the Probation Service where I was an HR Director, I was keen to use my experience in new environments. A former colleague is a panel member and suggested I apply and I’m very pleased she did!

What would you say to someone who is considering becoming a panel member themselves?
It’s a positive experience being involved in recruiting people to the next stage in their careers. It’s been rewarding to increase my knowledge of the different judicial roles. The exercises are very well organised by the JAC, you will feel supported and properly briefed before each exercise, and the candidates and fellow panel members are endlessly interesting.

What is your main area of work outside being a panel member?
I work as an HR consultant, mainly with local charities, and I am also an artist. I have to make sure I don’t turn up to an interview in my painting shirt!

What was your first ever job?
Picking and selling soft fruit…. hard work.

What can you tell us about yourself that your colleagues would not necessarily know?

I’ve taken part in lots of public street sculpture trails including Snowdogs, snails, a 7-foot-high hare, and a giant bee. So far, the auction sale of the sculptures I have designed and painted have raised almost £100k for charities.

Andrew Waller

What made you decide to become a panel member for the JAC?
I made the decision to leave full-time employment a number of years ago. I had reached a fork in the road and decided to leave my employer to build a portfolio of roles that included areas that I am passionate about, areas where I believed my skills and experience could make an impact, and areas that were new to me. When I saw the recruitment advert for JAC panel members, I knew I had the skills and experience, but I did not know anything about the judiciary. I decided to apply, and I have to say that the selection process really sold it to me. I really enjoyed carrying out an assessment of a mock candidate, realising in the interview that I could do this and make a contribution, and I came away that day wanting the role. It is great to work with really good people – other panel members, judicial members and JAC staff, to be continuously learning, and importantly, to be making a contribution.

What would you say to someone who is considering becoming a panel member themselves?
If you are already considering it, I would encourage you to apply and see if it is something that you wish to do. Some people may need more information before submitting the application, and may wish to hear directly from an existing panel member. If you would like to talk to someone, contact the JAC and ask them to put you in contact with an existing panel member – I would be very happy to talk to anyone and share my own experience.

What is your main area of work outside being a panel member?The honest answer to this question is that it varies throughout the year, which reflects the nature of my work portfolio. I sit on the ‘School Teacher Review Body’, which advises the Secretary of State for Education on school teacher pay and employment conditions. I am also the chair of a school academy trust, and I will invest a lot of time in that until the end of the Summer term. I am a volunteer for Macmillan Cancer Support, which includes fundraising and acting as a buddy to people living with cancer – providing practical and emotional support. 

What was your first ever job?
My very first job was as a sales assistant in an art shop in Bradford – art remains a passion – but that job is not on my CV. The first job mentioned on my CV is college lecturer in physical chemistry.

What can you tell us about yourself that your colleagues would not necessarily know?
I am a qualified hockey umpire and spend most weekends on hockey pitches – umpiring on Saturdays and ‘coaching’ the 5-8 year olds on Sundays.

Shirley Soskin

What made you decide to become a panel member for the JAC?
I had a career in corporate life and several not-for-profit board roles, and I wanted to add something different to the portfolio.

What would you say to someone who is considering becoming a panel member themselves?
It is very interesting work, very worthwhile, there is always a mix of interesting subject matter, new colleagues and varied candidates. 

What is your main area of work outside being a panel member?
I do various consulting and not-for-profit advisory roles. 

What was your first ever job?
Working in the sock department of Marks & Spencer on the Holloway Road, as a holiday job, in a rougher area than it is now. My first permanent job was working for the European Movement, providing information on the workings of the European Union. 

What can you tell us about yourself that your colleagues would not necessarily know?
I am trying to write a novel, but life keeps getting in the way.

The panel member experience

Maureen Nicholas

Maureen Nicholas has been a panel member since 2018. She has over 21 years’ experience as a HR professional, across a range of sectors – Criminal Justice, Local and Central Government, Higher Education and Social Housing.

“I have been lucky enough to interview and assess individuals at different points in their career – from front line staff, such as Caretakers, to Graduate Trainees, Chief Executives and Board Members. This has enabled me to have a clear understanding about what makes a candidate, regardless of their background, and the level of role they are applying for, someone who can confidently navigate the recruitment process. In a nutshell, it is how well they have thought themselves into the role they are applying for.

“Since being a JAC panel member, I would say this is true for the candidates who have done well across all elements of the recruitment process. It is clear to me and my colleagues, that these individuals, have taken the time to research the role they have applied for, through engaging with their network, observing someone undertaking the role, alongside fully utilising the resources available from the JAC.

“But they do not stop there – what is also evident, is how they have critically evaluated the information they have researched, to tailor their examples and to address any gaps in their knowledge. Such candidates really think about the reason they have applied to become a member of the judiciary, and very importantly, how they will add value, in their own unique and authentic way.

“For me, this is what differentiates candidates, and is also the reason, I enjoy playing my small role in supporting the JAC, to select candidates based on merit, with the aim of increasing diversity within the judiciary.”

Paula McDonald

Paula McDonald CBE joined as a JAC panel member after retiring from a career in public service, most recently as a Senior Civil Servant in the Cabinet Office.

“In the Cabinet Office, I had led on workforce, lead and leadership and public body reform policy. I could see that my background in workforce and leadership development would be transferrable to the Panel Member role. I was also familiar with the development of law and regulation through experience of parliamentary bill making.

What I most enjoy most about the role

“I learn something new from every exercise. I meet and work alongside some amazing people – the judges who are experts in their field, my fellow panel colleagues who are from all walks of life and the JAC selection team. Most importantly, I enjoy meeting the judicial candidates – it is a privilege to hear their personal journeys and their achievements. 

“I enjoy being entrusted with the importance of what we do as panel members.  Our recommendations to the JAC Commissioners of who should hold judicial office will impact not only the future career of candidates but the members of the public who rely on, and put their faith in, the judicial system to make legally sound, impartial and fair judgments. The decisions the judges make are often life changing – so what we do as panellists really matters.

Our assessments of the best candidates for judicial office have to fair, impartial and evidence based and stand up to scrutiny. I enjoy being tested to meet the high standards set through the rigour and thoroughness of our decision making.

“Over the years I have seen an increasing focus on improving the diversity in the judiciary. We have been successful in recruiting more women judges but still have work to do to increase racial diversity and greater representation of people with disabilities. We are making progress, but are not complacent and know we have more work to do in creating a more diverse judiciary.  As Panellists we challenge ourselves and each other on any unconscious bias we may hold. Sometimes someone will hear or assess something differently. Through respectful but honest discussion we draw on the different perspectives of the panel to come to a fair consensus.

“We are trying to improve the diversity of Panel Members too. I have been pleased to support the JAC in helping to recruiting new Panellists who are women and or from black and minority ethnic backgrounds and have been a buddy and mentor to new Panellists to support them in getting the best start.   

“Like everyone else, we have changed how we work in response the Covid pandemic. This has offered benefits and challenges in equal measure. We have reduced travel through remote and online assessments and had to learn some different virtual selection exercises.

“One of our challenges is get the right balance between inviting candidates to give their evidence against the competencies and then probing appropriately for more evidence where it is unclear. The best candidates offer clear and compelling examples to demonstrate their skills and competency, avoid rambling or being too general in their answers. They also are well prepared, having read the comprehensive guidance notes, researched the JAC website and other legal references.”

Allan Ruddock

Allan Ruddock has been a panel chair for the JAC since 2008. He is professionally qualified and has over 20 years’ experience in HR and recruitment in the civil service.

All in the same boat

“In my 7 years as a panel chair I’ve found that it doesn’t matter who is sitting on the candidate’s side of the table, how senior, how experienced, or clever they are, they are nervous and find the interview process difficult. Everyone does. However, those who have prepared clearly find it easier.

“Candidates who haven’t understood the process and didn’t do any preparation really struggle. I’m sure they have loads of good examples they just don’t have them at their fingertips because they haven’t done the work in advance of interview. But I do think that the message is finally getting through that you need to do a good self-assessment, give good examples and prepare for the interview process.”

Natural behaviours to the fore

“I think the role play is a very powerful recruitment tool because it puts the candidate into a very realistic situation. With good actors, candidates get caught up in the situation and it ceases to be a role play and becomes a court room so they begin to act like a judge or tribunal member. I believe that as people become caught up, their natural behaviours come out. That is what we want to see. It’s quite enlightening what we find out. Natural behaviours almost inevitably come to the fore.

“The actors are not in any way involved in decision making but they do take it their role very seriously.  They are very professional. Sometimes they have to improvise, if the candidate goes off-piste then they help to get the role play back on track so we cover what we need to.”

A professional panel

“As chair the majority of my panel members are like-minded which makes it easy. But sometimes you do get a member who strongly disagrees. I like to have these discussions because sometimes you can miss something. This is why having a panel is so important. There is often a very detailed discussion especially when one of the candidates is borderline. It can be difficult but everyone is professional and we use the evidence. It’s not personal it’s a business decision and as chair you have the casting vote.

“For every selection exercise we talk about unconscious bias. We are constantly checking ourselves and each other. We must ensure we don’t judge anyone on their background or diversity. It’s a discipline. It’s crucially important to candidates that we use only the evidence put before us.

“What reassures me is that everybody: the JAC staff, the front of house team, the panel – everybody takes the process very seriously. No candidates can say they’ve had an unfair deal. They have been given a good opportunity to tell us why they are suitable and have been considered honestly and fully.

“No recruitment system is perfect but having been involved in a number of them I believe this is a robust, detailed, professional system.”

Remote approach

“Since March 2020, panels have been carrying out remote assessments and these are likely to continue in some form for the foreseeable future. Situational questions and competency-based interviews are no less effective than the live, face-to-face situation and the JAC Selection teams and technical staff  have worked very effectively to ensure that the experience runs smoothly for both candidates and panel members. The evidence obtained still allows panels to make appropriate decisions.”

Teresa Carter-Johnson

Teresa Carter-Johnson has been a lay panel member since 2004. She was previously Head of Recruitment for American Express UK.

“When this role came up I had just taken voluntary redundancy as Head of Recruitment for Amex UK to get a better balance of work and family. It has been ideal, I’m using my recruitment skills at a senior level while developing expertise in a completely new area.

“I have an extensive background in recruitment and retention. During my time at Amex we were able to ‘tap in’ to some innovative recruitment approaches and were one of the first companies to fully embrace competency based interviewing. I also helped develop the in-house recruitment training for managers.

“For the JAC I have undertaken both panel chair and panel member roles and both are enjoyable. The chair role obviously has more responsibility and can be time consuming. The role of panel member suits me best as I have caring responsibilities.

“The JAC runs a thorough and fair process that allows all applicants an equal opportunity to demonstrate their suitability for the role.

“The competencies needed are always clearly identified but sometimes a candidate chooses a poor example to demonstrate the competence or ability.  If this happens during an interview the panel do their best to elicit as much relevant evidence as time will allow.  However if an application form has been poorly completed then the panel can only base their decision on the information on the form.

“I am aware that some candidates, although very experienced in their day job, may not be familiar with the interview process.  The JAC provides some very useful training for potential applicants to help with the application and interview, which is well worth pursuing.

“My role is always interesting and varied. The calibre of the candidates we interview is often exceptional and the roles we recruit for are arguably some of the most important jobs in the country.”

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